Introduction of workdays.
Но здесь, в этом древнем городе, не было Гробницы - на ее месте стояло лишь низкое, круглое здание со множеством сводчатых входов. У одного из этих входов его ожидал какой-то человек. Джезераку следовало бы растеряться в изумлении, но сейчас ничто не могло его удивить.
Workdays: what was the most collective farm internet earnings "currency" in the USSR. See what "workday" is in other dictionaries The share of each was accrued according to workdays - in fact, it was a piecework system, in which the peasant was paid depending on the time worked and the level of qualifications required to complete the tasks.
Field work was assessed at the lowest rate, further on this scale were livestock breeders, tractor drivers, foremen, and at the highest point - chairmen. Most collective farms began in the early years with equalizing distribution, and the transition to pay according to workdays met with very significant resistance. Despite the clear prescriptions of the Charter of an agricultural artel, even in and IN Central Russia wrote about this not only collective farm internet earnings the 30s, but also in the 50s.
- Хотя процесс, происходящий на их глазах, и был совершенно естественным, было не слишком-то приятно наблюдать разумное по всей видимости существо, бьющееся в агонии.
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- В сложной общественной жизни Диаспара в ходу было множество всяких титулов и прозвищ, и, чтобы выучить их все, требовалось прожить целую жизнь.
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However, the accrual of workdays to various collective farmers varied greatly. First, different jobs were evaluated differently: the chairman's working day cost more than the average collective farmer's working day 1. Inthe average collective farmer both man and woman was paid for 19 days of work in January and 20 days in July, while the chairman invariably received 30 to 31 days a month.
Secondly, the difference in pay also depended on the fact that the degree of participation of the collective farmer in common work This was a matter of concern for the authorities, who did everything in their power to cope with the two main reasons for the low participation in the work of the collective farm: the work of men on leave and the employment of women on the personal plot. Of the total collective farmers of working age, who in the Soviet Union in amounted to almost 20 million people, 7 million worked out less than 50 workdays.
Background[ edit ] After the emancipation of the serfs inpeasants gained control of about half of the land they had previously cultivated and began to ask for the redistribution of all land.
The reasons for this minimal participation in collective farm work were that women could afford to stay at home or found it more profitable to work on their plots. Even those of them who earned a significant number of workdays worked on the collective farm only in the hottest times. In winter, as noted earlier, the ratio of men and women working on the collective farm was 2: 1 Despite all the calls for the opposite, the tradition reigned in a peasant family, according to which, if both husband and wife were ordinary collective farmers, the husband spent more time on the collective farm fields, and the wife - on the personal plot.
In they tried to force women to work on the collective farm by introducing a minimum of workdays. Therefore, here most of the wives of tractor drivers, foremen and some members of the board still do not work on the collective farm, but are engaged exclusively in their personal household In the 30s. Since these assignments were large, in a lean year the collective farm had little grain to distribute. The size of payments in kind per workday during the 30s. Inthe average Soviet collective farm gave out 2.
Thus, inthe collective farm household received an average of kg of grain for workdays, or approximately one kilogram per day for each family member. The problem was that there could be a monstrous difference in pay for workdays, depending on the fertility of the region, the yield, the amount of mandatory deliveries and the productivity of the collective farm.
Collectivization in the Soviet Union
So, the collective farm "Pugachev" in Bashkiria gave out in 8 kg of grain per workday. However, a year before the crop failure in many regions, the collective farms of the Leningrad Region produced less than a third of a kilogram of grain per workday.
As for cash payments, according to official data, the average collective farmer received rubles in total for the year. Many collective farms did not issue cash at all for workdays, and not only in the event of a temporary economic crisis, as, for example, in the Non-Black Earth Region in A similar thing happened in some collective farms in fertile agricultural regions after a bountiful harvest in Cash payments to collective farmers were so small because the chairmen and boards of collective farms drod binary options trading reviews often found other uses for the collective farm's income.
The indivisible collective farm fund, intended mainly for financing the collective farm construction and the purchase of livestock and agricultural machinery, provided a lot of opportunities, for many chairmen much more attractive than the legal payment of collective farmers' workdays. For example, it could be used to pay salaries to the chairman and accountant see Chapter 7or it could be used to hire labor, either in the event of a real shortage of hands, or to free collective farm members for other activities.
However, it is clear that this prescription, like the previous ones, collective farm internet earnings often ignored As the collective farms prospered, especially in the south, by the end of the 30s. In addition to the collective farm chairmen who made unremitting efforts to secure a monthly salary for themselves, all other administration officials and officials also began to demand regular wages from the collective farm instead of unpredictable in kind collective farm internet earnings cash payments for workdays based on a proportional distribution of production and farm profits.
Brigadiers, accountants, grooms, drivers and watchmen were named among those who reportedly received regular wages on the collective farms of the Kuibyshev Oblast in They wrote about the same demand put forward by rank-and-file collective farmers in the Leningrad Region.
The collective farmers also tried, not trusting the accounting of workdays, to conclude contracts with the collective farm for the implementation of specific works On one collective farm in the Leningrad Region, collective farmers who worked in the stables demanded to pay them 5 rubles.
On a well-to-do collective farm on the Middle Volga, a collective farmer bought a couple of bulls and offered to provide them for work on the collective farm if he was paid in cash at the same rate as individual farmers.
Despite the prohibition of collective farms from hiring outside workers, this practice existed everywhere, especially in those areas collective farm internet earnings proximity to city markets gave collective farmers many opportunities to extract significant additional personal income.
One collective farm in the Leningrad Region spent 4, rubles in hiring outsiders to work in the fields.
- А в то же время для любого и каждого в Диаспаре наружу означало совершенно непереносимый кошмар.
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Another collective farm hired workers for 6 rubles. On the "Pyatiletka" collective farm in the Kalinin region, where the recruitment of labor was especially frequent, half of the collective farmers worked at the local brick and glass factories, and the collective farm hired individual farmers for field work.
However, according to official statistics, such cases were an exception.
In most places, the collective farm employed on average less than 10 people per year. Finally, individual collective farmers, it happened, hired "deputies" who worked for them on the collective farm. For example, on the Stalin collective farm, located 3 km from the regional center of Ordzhonikidze, the wife of the collective farmer Nikolai Piskachev sent her housekeeper into the field instead of herself, and she traded on the black market in the city.
In the collective farm "Budyonny" in the Kiev region, the collective farmer S. Lymar hired an individual farmer to work in his place in the field. Lymar paid the individual farmer in cash, and collective farm internet earnings collective farm paid Lymar for workdays To strengthen labor discipline, the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU b and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR of May 27, "On measures to protect public lands of collective farms from squandering", along with other instructions, established a mandatory minimum of workdays for able-bodied collective farmers -80 and 60 workdays per year depending on edges and areas.
Workers who have not worked out without good reason within a year of a minimum of workdays, were to be excluded from the collective farm, deprived of personal plots and the advantages established for collective farmers. As a result, incompared withthe average output per collective farm household increased from to workdays.
YouTube Collective Earnings.
In war conditions, the mandatory annual minimum of worked-out workdays was increased. Depending on the natural and climatic conditions for different regions and regions by groupsit began collective farm internet earnings be calculated atand workdays. It was envisaged that adolescents, members signals for options reviews the families of collective farmers, between the ages of 12 and 16, had to work out at least 50 workdays a year.
This promoted the labor education of adolescents, allowed them to combine work with study at school and reduced the possibility of them committing crimes. In addition, additional payments were introduced to increase crop yields and livestock productivity. By a decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR of April 15,it was stipulated that persons guilty of not working the obligatory minimum of workdays were punished with corrective labor on a collective farm for up to 6 months with a deduction from payment of up to 25 percent of workdays.
Moreover, this retention was made not in favor of the state, but in favor of the collective farm.
This decision contributed to the interest of the collective farm in the fact that this crime was not concealed. According to the meaning of the decree, only able-bodied persons could be criminally liable for failure to work out the mandatory minimum of workdays.
By order of the People's Commissar of Justice of the USSR of July 4,the courts were prohibited from accepting for consideration cases of criminal liability for failure to comply with the mandatory minimum workdays, if it was about collective farmers over 60 years old, collective farmers over 55 years old and adolescents under 16 years old. Consequently, adolescents from 12 to 16 years old, members of the families of collective farmers, although they had to work out at least 50 workdays a year, they did not bear criminal responsibility for failure to fulfill such a minimum.
It is impossible not to pay attention to the fact that in the face of the threat of loss of power, our managers, and not only they, work much collective farm internet earnings efficiently. By the way, the heroism of the soldiers was not formed on sheer enthusiasm during the Great Patriotic War Assault aviation pilots were paid 3, for 50 sorties, a destroyed steam locomotive "Cost" rubles, a car - The "prices" for German tanks were similar.
For example, the calculation of an anti-tank rifle with one well-aimed shot could earn rubles: received the gunner, - the second number. An infantryman who knocked out a tank with a grenade or Molotov cocktail received 1, rubles. At first, as you know, they paid for the orders, but later, when the danger to the how to make money by investing a dollar had passed, "at the request of the workers" this payment was canceled.
And then With whom to trade on binary options reviews came Equalization, which nullified interest in the results of labor, begins soon after N. Ina decision was made to introduce a new wage system on collective farms.
A man-day the so-called mayfly with monetary wages began to be introduced. The existence of a workday was officially interrupted by the introduction of guaranteed wages, introduced in accordance with the decree of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Council of Ministers of the USSR of May 18, "On increasing the material interest of collective farmers in the development social production ".
In parallel with the rejection of the workday and the introduction of guaranteed wages, there was a process of destruction of collective farms through the state farmization of agricultural production.
State farm workers in the North in the agrarian sector they constituted the overwhelming majority began to receive wages for their work, as they say, "from the wheel", regardless of the final result of the collective - directly from the state.
The guaranteed wages practically put an end to the employee's interest in the efficiency of the team.
As a result of this, as well as the fight against personal subsidiary plots, agrarian policy passed a death sentence on the agrarian economy. It was then that began in the country, according to the witches, the period of "general electrification", when, as they said, everything was "cared for," and lack of interest led to what the great Hegel called "spiritual or physical death.
It took a huge bureaucratic apparatus to force a person to work. It was formed in the conditions of political passivity of people alienated from property by the state. Therefore, they climbed the bureaucratic ladder not by the level of intelligence, professionalism and competence, but by the principles of nepotism and collective farm internet earnings loyalty.
Main articles: Communal landPropertyand Commons A small group of farming or herding families living together on a jointly managed piece of land is one of the most common living arrangements in all of human history as this has co-existed and competed with more individualistic forms of ownership as well as state ownership since the beginnings of agriculture. Private ownership came to predominate in much of the Western world and is therefore better studied. The process by which Western Europe's communal land and other property became private is a fundamental question behind views of property: namely is it the legacy of historical injustices and crimes? Karl Marx believed that what he called primitive communism joint ownership was ended by exploitative means he called primitive accumulation.
Career advancement was closely dependent on the candidate's conformism, his ability and desire to please his superiors, ostentatious activity, personal loyalty - in a word, the ability to live according to the principle "you are the boss - I am a fool, I am a boss - you are a fool.