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ConferenceSemi-virtualMultiple-locationLive streamGreenhouse-gas emissionsCultural diversity Introduction An academic conference produces greenhouse-gas GHG emissions in various ways. Emissions from flying are typically large measured in tonnes of carbon or CO2 relative to emissions from other sources measured in kilograms.

The main environmental challenge, therefore, is to reduce emissions from flying.

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An economy seat on a typical intercontinental return flight corresponds to roughly one tonne of carbon equivalent or 3. Expressed per person-kilometer, these emissions may be some four times higher for flying than for bus travel, and twenty times higher than for electric train eea.

By comparison, air conditioning at a conference in a hot, humid location might use some tens of kW for some tens of hours, or roughly kWh. If the electricity is from fossil fuels, generating one kW produces about one kg of CO2 by burning g carbon. So a few hundred kg of carbon will be needed for air conditioning—less than the flying emissions of one participant. The CO2 emitted during production of beef served at the conference are even smaller; for every 10 kg beef served, roughly kg carbon is burned.

Emissions from a kg of plastic packaging are roughly 2 kg carbon. Consider now the emissions from internet-based audiovisual AV communication.

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YouTube currently the most popular platform is emitting approximately 10 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent per year, while being watched for 1 billion hours per day Preist et al. If on one day 27, tonnes CO2 equivalent are emitted while videos are watched for 1 billion hours, one video produces 27 g CO2 per hour, or about 7 g carbon. At a semi-virtual multi-hub conference described belowparticipants might watch YouTube for 2 hours each.

If we add virtual presentations within the conference program and viewing by individuals after the conference, the total might be hours or 20 kg carbon—negligible compared to emissions from flying.

Due to other gases e.

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Alternatives such as electric motors and biofuels cannot scale up without causing other serious environmental problems. Flying may represent half the footprint of those relatively few people who currently fly ICAO,; Freeman et al. In recent years, technological developments in internet-based AV communication have made it possible to significantly reduce GHG emissions produced by travel to and from academic conferences by incorporating virtual interactions. This strategy can have positive spinoffs for academic communication, collaboration, inclusion, cultural diversity, and dissemination.

The available technology for high-quality AV transmission is reliable, inexpensive, and easy to use, provided organizers are well informed in advance and have qualified technical support e. This practice paper outlines promising alternatives to the conventional conference format that involve live streaming, and provides guidance for successful implementation.

Live streaming can be used in different ways to improve the accessibility and cultural diversity of an academic conference while at the same time reducing emissions. Live streaming is not the only way to reduce emissions. Another option is to encourage colleagues to use surface transport wherever possible. A further option is to avoid flying altogether. A consideration of zero-location formats is beyond our present scope. In this contribution, we aim to help colleagues in different disciplines and countries to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of their conferences by explaining how they might take advantage of appropriate internet-based communication technologies.

We discuss how an approach of this kind can help academic conferences and perhaps conferences in general reduce their dependence on air travel while at the same time improving inclusiveness. The research area of the conference was music cognition, but the semi-virtual idea could be realized in any academic discipline in sciences, engineering, humanities, or arts, whether that discipline easy income from 1000 specialist, interdisciplinary, pure research, or practically oriented.

We aimed to halve per-capita emissions per participant.

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We achieved an even greater reduction, while at the same time making other improvements. By flexibly incorporating new communication technologies, we were able to increase both the number of participants make money on the Internet without investments video 392 their cultural diversity.

For many participants, the total cost of participation was significantly reduced. The cost reduction was greatest for colleagues from non-rich countries, for whom all three costs registration, accommodation, and travel were significantly reduced by comparison to flying to a conference in a rich country. At our Argentinian hub, South American participants paid less than half the registration fee charged in Canada, Australia, or Austria.

They also paid less for accommodation, given the lower cost of living in Argentina, and traveled a shorter distance than to a single-location conference in Graz, Austria. It would have been relatively easily within our new conference format to magnify this effect by establishing additional hubs in low-GDP countries such as South Africa or India.

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All talks at all hubs were live-streamed. At each hub, local and virtual programs ran in parallel in adjacent rooms; participants could easily change rooms after each talk, and in that way experience a mixture of live and remote presentations.

The global program ran around the clock, whereas local programs were confined to usual working hours. Conference format options The potential of live streams for academic conferences is only starting to be realized. Every conference, large and small, in every discipline and in every country, can benefit. Live streams enable any talk to be shared with a larger audience.

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The information becomes more openly accessible. The geographic outreach and cultural diversity of presenters and audiences is increased cf.

Neustaedter et al. A talk can be given almost anywhere, opening up new possibilities for global academic exchange. Ultimately, increasing the diversity of academic documentation formats helps both academic and general audiences to understand the content.

The incorporation of live streams changes the conference experience. The added variety of content, presentation format, and interaction style makes the conference more interesting.

Many academic make money on the Internet without investments video 392 will have experienced poor live streams at conferences, but that was often due to solvable technical problems. The AV quality of YouTube live streams is consistently and reliably high.

Technical problems can be avoided by careful advance rehearsal. While it is undeniably more fun and often more productive to communicate with people in person, face to face, it is also true that a regular live conference can be improved by adding electronic communication with remote participants.

Colleagues can be included who could not have flown to a central conference location; reasons for not flying can be financial, family-related caring commitmentsphysical disabilityand political passport, visa. Talks can be viewed at any time, which is both an advantage allowing any participant to watch any talk, even if the live talks happen simultaneously and a disadvantage breaking up the communal experience of watching and discussing a talk together.

In future, total emissions from flying to semi-virtual conferences could approach zero if conference hubs were located such that few or no colleagues needed to fly. Such conferences would also be more accessible, especially for colleagues in non-rich countries, who would no longer be faced with impossibly high costs for a long flight, registration, and accommodation in a rich country.

Participants would be treated equally if hub sizes were about equal, all talks were given live at hubs, and participants were neither implicitly rewarded for flying nor penalized for not flying. Adding remote talks to a regular conference as one-way streams Including some remote presentations is the simplest option for many conference organizers, requiring no additional equipment hardware or software.

Any conventional conference can be adapted to include remote presentations, which reduces the number of local participants, while increasing the total number. The event loses some of its elitist jet-set character and becomes more open: any researcher in the world can participate. Environmentally aware participants are no longer under pressure to fly in exchange for academic career benefits. The program becomes more interesting and diverse. Remote presenters can set up one- or two-way connections using facilities and support at their local institutions.

Setting up a one-way stream e. Organizers need no equipment beyond that for regular teaching: a regular computer with cable internet connection and internet browser, and a data projector.

Below, we will consider an alternative two-way option e. At the time of writing, YouTube live streams are the most promising option for one-way streaming.

The platform is reliable and the cost to the user is zero. AV quality is consistently high; transmission quality is almost independent of internet stability.

However, the high AV quality comes at the cost of a buffering delay of some 20—60 seconds. Other conference participants can watch these remote talks either in real time or later, which can partially compensate for the social disadvantage of remote presentation.

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YouTube offers three access options: Public videos, accessible to everyone and findable in Google. This is the most familiar option.

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Unlisted videos that can be viewed only if you have the link. That is what we used. Private videos that can be viewed only on invitation and after logging in with a google account.

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The number of people that can be invited is limited to 50 in October Many academics who present papers at conferences do not want their talk to be published in the internet.

They may be worried about making a mistake that cannot be corrected later, or publishing sensitive data. For that reason, options 2 and 3 may currently be preferable formula option strike price academic conferences. Option 3 is realistic only if there is no individual access, but the remote stream is only shown in the auditorium or for smaller conferences, so we focus here on 2.

Participants can be asked to sign an agreement to keep the links confidential at our conference we indicated that this was voluntary, but all participants signed. Remote presenters can set up their stream including starting time and URL in advance. Organizers can then distribute the URLs to all participants in an email just before the conference. Anyone with a mobile phone can send a YouTube live stream from a remote location.

To ensure a good presentation, conference organizers can insist that speakers use a dedicated room at a university or similar institution with technical support a person with whom your technician can communicate. Organizers can also insist on the presence of a small local expert audience e.

This creates a more comfortable situation for the speaker due to the natural visual and auditory feedback from the local audience during the presentation. If speakers cannot comply with these conditions, organizers can negotiate with them.

Questions and discussion following talks are important, and there are various options. One is to switch from one-way to two-way communication, as explained below.

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Another is to remain within one-way communication. For talks that are transmitted as YouTube live streams, audience members can type a question into a laptop or mobile make money on the Internet without investments video 392. The remote speaker can then answer the question acoustically on the live stream. An advantage for both presenter and audience is that all questions and comments are documented. Examples of public YouTube live streams that are currently running and publicly available can be seen by visiting youtube.

Next to the moving image is a chat stream. In an academic conference, audience members with a Google account can use the chat stream to comment or ask questions at any time. Another option is for the speaker to provide a mobile phone number.

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Audience members can send their questions by SMS, WhatsApp, Signal, or other messenging service and the speaker can answer acoustically. The chair can even make a regular phone call to the speaker at the end of the talk and pass the phone around the auditorium as audience members ask their questions.

The speaker answers on the live stream. This last option does not work well on YouTube live stream due to the time delay. A further advantage of this approach is that conference organizers do not need to set up wireless microphones.

This method can also be used as a backup in case microphones do not work or the sound quality on Skype or Zoom is poor. Adding remote talks to a conference changes the conference budget. The total number of talks may go up at the same time as the number of local participants falls. This trading binars on weekends both registration income and local costs, but not in the same proportion. Consider the following strategy: Increase the registration fee slightly to reflect the larger scope and diversity of the conference, made possible by adding remote presentations.

Charge remote presenters from rich countries a small fee; presenters from non-rich countries whose abstracts have been accepted by anonymous peer review may present for free although they may be charged a smaller fee to access other live streams.

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While the option of remote presentation should normally be explained in the call for papers, it is also possible to introduce it for the first time when papers are accepted.

Organizers can then inform participants that they can present remotely, give them a technical guideline, and ask for their decision by a deadline. OBS juxtaposes the talking head of the speaker with the Powerpoint image see appendix. To avoid legal problems, presenters should be asked to avoid including soundfiles or images from the internet. YouTube can automatically find potential copyright infringements and block the stream.

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