However, current methods for evaluation of middle ear mobility are mostly limited to the surgeon's subjective impression through manual palpation of the ossicles.
Wu, Bo; Xie, Linfu; Hu, Han; Zhu, Qing; Yau, Eric Photorealistic three-dimensional 3D models are fundamental to the spatial data infrastructure of a digital city, and have numerous potential applications in areas such as urban planning, urban management, urban monitoring, and urban environmental studies. Recent developments in aerial oblique photogrammetry based on aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicles UAVs offer promising techniques for 3D modeling. Meanwhile, mobile mapping systems MMSs can capture terrestrial images of close-range objects from a complementary view on the ground at a high level of detail, but do not offer full coverage.
This study investigates how middle ear transfer function is affected by stapes quasi-static stiffness of the ossicular chain. The stiffness of the middle ear is induced by a using a novel fiber-optic 3-axis force sensor to quantify the quasi-static stiffness of the middle ear, and b by artificial reduction of stapes mobility due to drying of the middle ear.
Middle ear transfer function, defined as the ratio of the stapes footplate velocity versus the ear canal sound pressure, was measured with a single point LDV in two conditions. First, a controlled palpation force was applied at the stapes head in two in-plane superior-inferior or posterior-anterior directions, and at the incus lenticular process near the incudostapedial joint in the piston lateral-medial direction with a novel 3-axis PalpEar force sensor Sensoptic, Losone, Switzerlandwhile the corresponding quasi-static displacement of the contact point was measured via a 3-axis micrometer stage.
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The palpation force was applied sequentially, step-wise in the range of 0. Second, measurements were repeated with various stages of stapes fixation, simulated by pre-load on the stapes head or drying of the temporal bone, and with severe ossicle immobilization, simulated by gluing of the stapes footplate.
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The role of the middle and outer ear in sound transmission is particularly important for otoacoustic emissions OAEswhich are sound signals generated in a healthy cochlea, and recorded by a sensitive microphone placed in the ear canal. OAEs are used to evaluate the health and function of the cochlea; however, they are also affected by outer and middle ear characteristics. To better assess cochlear health using OAEs, it is critical to quantify the impact of the outer and middle ear on sound transmission.
The reported research introduces a disassemble the puria method in detail on options approach to estimate outer-middle ear transmission using distortion product otoacoustic emissions DPOAEs. Impedance estimations from wideband refectance measurements were used for parameter fitting of the model.
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The model was validated comparing its estimates of the outer-middle ear sound transmission with those given by DPOAEs. The outer-middle ear transmission by the model was defined as the sum of forward and reverse outer-middle ear transmissions.
To estimate the reverse transmission by the model, the probe-microphone impedance was calculated through estimating the Thevenin-equivalent circuit of the probe-microphone. The Thevenin-equivalent circuit was calculated using measurements prokhorov binary options a number of test cavities. Such modeling enhances our understanding of the roles of different parts of the outer and middle ear and how they work together to determine their function.
In addition, the model would be potentially helpful in diagnosing pathologies of.