The Bottom Line Options are contracts that give option buyers the right to buy or sell a security at a predetermined price on or before a specified day. The price of an option, called the premiumis composed of a number of variables.
Options traders need to be aware of these variables so they can make an informed decision about when to trade an option. When investors buy options, the biggest driver of outcomes is the price movement of the underlying security or stock. Call option buyers of stock options need the underlying stock price to rise, whereas put option buyers need the stock's price to fall.
However, there are many other factors that impact the profitability of an options contract.
Some of those factors include the stock option price or premium, how much time is remaining until the contract expires, and how much the underlying security or stock fluctuates in value. Key Takeaways Options prices, known as premiums, are composed of the sum of its intrinsic and time value. Intrinsic value is the price difference between the current stock price and the strike price. An option's time value or extrinsic value of an option is the at what price can you buy an option of premium above its intrinsic value.
Time value is high when more time is remaining until expiry since investors have a higher probability that the contract will be profitable. Understanding the Basics of Option Prices Options contracts provide the buyer or investor with the right, but not the obligation, to buy a sell an underlying security at at what price can you buy an option preset price, called the strike price.
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Options contracts have an expiration date called an expiry and trade on options exchanges. Options contracts are derivatives because they derive their value from the price of the underlying security or stock.
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A buyer of an equity call option would want the underlying stock price to be higher than the strike price of the option by expiry. On the other hand, how to really make money yourself buyer of a put option would want the underlying stock price to be below the put option strike price by the contract's expiry.
There are many factors that can impact the value of an option's premium and ultimately, the profitability of an options contract. Below are two of the key components that comprise of an option's premium and ultimately whether it's profitable, called in the money ITMor unprofitable, called out of the money OTM. Intrinsic Value One of the key drivers for an option's premium is the intrinsic value.
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Intrinsic value is how much of the premium is made up of the price difference between the current stock price and the strike price. The option isn't going to be exercised until it's profitable or in-the-money.
In other words, to calculate how much of an option's premium is due to intrinsic value, an investor would subtract the strike price from the current stock price. Intrinsic value is important because if the option premium is primarily made up intrinsic value, the option's value and profitability are more dependent on movements in the underlying stock price.
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The rate at which a stock price fluctuates is called volatility. Measuring Intrinsic Value An option's sensitivity to the underlying stock's movement is called delta. A delta of 1. The delta for puts is represented as a negative number, which demonstrates the inverse relationship of the put compared to the stock movement.
A put with a delta of Time Value The time remaining until an option's expiration has a monetary value associated with it, which is known as time value.
The more time that remains before the option's expiry, the more time value is embedded in the option's premium. In other words, time value is the portion of the premium above the intrinsic value that an option buyer pays for the privilege of owning the contract for a certain period.
As a result, time value is often referred to as extrinsic value. Investors are willing to pay a premium for an option if it has time remaining until expiration because there's more time to earn a profit. The longer the time remaining, the higher the premium since investors are willing to pay for that extra time for the contract to become profitable or have intrinsic value. Remember, the underlying stock price needs to move beyond the option's strike price in order to have intrinsic value.
The more time that remains on the contract, the higher the probability the stock's price could move beyond the strike price and into profitability. As a result, time value plays a significant role, in not only determining an option's premium but also the likelihood of the contract expiring in-the-money.
The less time that remains on an option, the less incentive an investor has to pay the premium since there's less time to earn a profit.