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Shtrange, Russkoe Lotman and B. Rzheutskii, A. Aleksandr Radishchev, of course, was fair game, along with the minor authors he influenced.

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Indeed, I will briefly discuss the fact that Pavel Stroganov was among those marked by the Revolution in this way. Petersburg lifestyle of the Bariatinskii children, see I. Bariatinskogo [Copies of letters, various quotation His parents became estranged due to their respective infidelities, and after her return from Paris inhis mother led the high life in St.

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Petersburg, entertaining lavishly in her stately mansion on Millionnaia Street. Ivan Ivanovich grew up in this atmosphere and was actively engaged in home theatre, which his mother supported by recruiting young nobles with theatrical talent to perform plays together with her children.

The same collection of letters from also features an extended essay, written or copied by him, on the subject of whether the government of the Romans can be deemed democratic, which also includes digressions into Egyptian, Babylonian, and Chinese history. In a letter ofBariatinskii seems to endorse the legitimacy of unrest in France albeit without calling it a revolutionwhile at the same time expressing solidarity with the rule of Catherine the Great: 9 Ibid, l.

Bariatinskogo [Drafts, notes, observations and re Petersburg and embarked on a European journey, ostensibly to seek a cure binary options roman stroganov her rheumatism. It is thus possible that Bariatinskii stopped in Paris on his way to Geneva. Simolin had received instructions from Catherine to send all Russians home.

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Bariatinskii was a supporter of Mirabeau, and we can rank him among the moderates who favoured a constitutional monarchy. In his analysis of the causes of the Revolution, he emphasized the despotic role of the nobility and the weakness of the king, contradicting absolutist political theory.

In her travel account she mentioned that her son would come and study at the Geneva Academy, but he was clearly not yet in Geneva at the time of her visit to the city.

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See S. In all binary options strategies videos fresh series case, by the late eighteenth century, partly on account of its refusal to hire professors who were not from local aristocratic families, the Geneva Academy was in decline, and much of the new science took place outside its walls, within recently constituted scientific societies, where commoners and foreign scholars worked alongside the local elite, creating an unusually dynamic scientific milieu relative to the size of the city.

Petersburg and Moscow, which functioned more like social hubs than incubators of knowledge, 20 Bariatinskii clearly had in mind primarily the propagation of Enlightenment ideas, the transplantation into Russia of the republic of letters. Yet there binary options roman stroganov little to suggest, in his description, that such a club could function as a political force, a counterweight to the ruling elites, as it did in Geneva.

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More specifically, this contract between the citizens and the state rests on the citizens accepting the laws of the state and paying lawful dues to it, while the state promises to protect the goods owned by the citizens and guarantees their peaceful enjoyment.

The emphasis on mutual rights and duties betrays the influence of German Protestant natural law theory, which Bariatinskii acquired through Platner.

The second volume was published posthumously in an unauthorized version, but nevertheless became widely influential. In his view, the civil freedom of individuals living under this political regime is akin to their natural freedom, but limited by the authority of the sovereign, i.

This power manifests itself through the promulgation of laws, while the executive functions of the state pertain to the government, which acts merely as a servant of the sovereign, rather than as a part thereof.

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Laws represent an absolute expression of popular sovereignty, and they can accordingly be changed in conformity with the will of the people. Clearly, Bariatinskii had no truck with absolutist social contract theory Hobbes, Grotius, Pufendorf, etc. To put it differently, the legal order needs to be sufficiently robust to hold civil freedom in check, and in order to do so, it needs on the one side to be legitimized by political, democratic participation in the promulgation of laws and on the other, to rest on the fundamental, inalienable rights of the individual.

By emphasizing the role of fundamental laws, which provide safeguards against excessive civil freedom on the one hand, and against abuse by the sovereign on the other, Bariatinskii took a stance more in keeping with Burlamaqui and with the Declaration of the Rights of Man than with Rousseau, for whom any laws enacted by the popular will must always be right, even though they can change.

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And Bariatinskii also remained committed to the notion that ultimately the happiness of the people took precedence over their freedom and represented the ultimate criterion of legitimacy for the sovereign, a vestige perhaps of his intellectual debt to German natural law theory.

Over the course of the eighteenth century, Geneva had punched above its weight in European affairs and assumed a visible position in debates among Enlightenment figures. The legacy of the Calvinist Reformation, the fame of Rousseau, the unique political system under which it functioned, often mythologized nostalgically as a kind of ancient republic, the alleged uncorrupted mores of the Genevans, and the economic dynamism of the city all combined to maintain Geneva in the international limelight.

Yet social relations between its different orders were anything but harmonious. The city was composed of six different estates: the citoyens i.

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By the end of the s, only male members of the first two estates, i. In a concession to the polity, the circles were again allowed, and bythe year Bariatinskii arrived in Geneva, civic activism and the dissemination of political pamphlets were flourishing. The placement of this text, its subject matter, and the virulence of its tone make it unlikely that it represented a pedagogical exercise mandated by a tutor.

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We can surmise that he intended to circulate these two texts among his family and close friends, as was the practice among the aristocracy of his times. The young student is generally albeit not always well informed. His descriptions of the social structure and political order of the republic are broadly accurate, if incomplete and somewhat tendentious. He is keenly aware of the mythical reputation of the city, and debunks some tenets of this myth, while accepting others. He identifies two main reasons for the evisceration of freedom in the city.

The first is of a moral order and has to do with the arrogance, vanity, ambition, and prejudices of the ruling caste, which he calls aristocracy in the draft version and oligarchy in the clean copy.

He thus binary options roman stroganov the contemporary oligarchic political system with its former incarnation, when the General Council played a greater role in the running of the city and about half of the political leaders came from outside the patrician elite. His description of the role of the General Council is brief, but largely correct. In the General Council had obtained the right to elect half of the Council of the Two Hundreds, binary options roman stroganov this right was removed in Nevertheless, as he correctly implies, the restoration of the sovereignty of the General Council was one of the main political aims of the citizens and bourgeois.

In his view, it is the birth of an oligarchy that has destroyed the peaceful way of life and the ancient happiness of the Genevans. The Genevans have remained thrifty and industrious, and Bariatinskii seems to accept the premise that public decency has been preserved.

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He acknowledges the existence of religious freedom in the city and the importance of piety, but delineates a rational, if not rationalist attitude towards religion, the emergence of a shallow, desacralized form of piety. Ministers serve God and the world in equal measure and see no contradiction between the two.

Yet his lack of attention to the popular classes also betrays his blinders.

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He is a republican, not a democrat, and his premise of equality pertains to relations among those endowed with political rights, rather than among the people as a whole. What he decries in Geneva is the usurpation of power by an increasingly narrow oligarchy—which endangers liberty—along with the general lust for power and wealth, which saps the selfless ethos of genuine republicans.

It is doubtful that Bariatinskii would advocate extending political rights to all inhabitants of the city. He has little to say about the natifs, let alone the sujets, and nowhere does he show any democratic proclivities in his writings.

Get PDF Abstract Polarization of a light beam is traditionally studied under the hypothesis that the state of polarization is uniform across the transverse section of the beam. In such a case, if the paraxial approximation is also assumed, the propagation of the beam reduces to a scalar problem.

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